Blood Pressure Meter
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Blood Pressure Meter!! The human body is a synchronized system of various organs, their functional orchestration, and a feedback mechanism controlled by the brain. One of the vital organs-heart functions as a pump to push blood in different parts of the body to supply oxygen and food. Blood moves through a closed network of blood vessels-arteries and veins and exerts pressure on their walls. This pressure is termed as “Blood Pressure” or simply- BP. In simpler words, it is the measure of how hard your heart is working to meet the needs of the body. Regular Monitor of your BP is necessary, so this piece will help you to know more about Blood Pressure Meter.
What is Blood Pressure Meter?
The device which is calibrated to measure the BP is known as the Sphygmomanometer or the Blood Pressure Monitor, and it comprises of-
- An inflatable Cuff to be wrapped around the arm, at a vertical height at the same level as the heart, to restrict the blood flow when wrapped around the arm.
- A Mercury or Mechanical Manometer with a vertical glass column containing mercury or a gauge respectively.
- A Rubber Ball connected to the Cuff with a pipe to inflate the Cuff.
There are two basic methods- Auscultatory and Oscillometric, employed to measure the BP, and accordingly, classified into two types- Manual and Digital BP monitors. Manual ones can be further bifurcated as- Mercury and Aneroid based on the presence or absence of the Mercury column.
This method uses Korotkoff sounds to identify Systolic and Diastolic BP. The Cuff wrapped around the upper arm chokes the artery. A stethoscope is placed to the brachial artery at the elbow, to listen to a pounding sound when the air pressure is slowly released. It is caused by the highest pressure when blood starts flowing for the first time after it was occluded. Air pressure is released until the whooshing can no longer be heard. It is noted as Diastolic BP.
The process is the same, but the only difference is that there is no listening device, like Stethoscope, and the method is based on the measurement of the oscillations caused by the arterial pressure pulse. When the blood starts flowing in the vessels, they produce oscillations and continue until the blood flow is normalized. The oscillations are measured and calculated to arrive at the SBP and DBP.
Working Procedure of Blood Pressure Meter
A blood pressure cuff is used to take blood pressure. The cuff has an inflatable rubber bladder that is fastened around the arm. A pressure meter indicates the cuff’s pressure. A small, handheld air pump inflates the blood pressure cuff. After the cuff has been inflated an air valve is used to slowly release air pressure. As the pressure is released, a stethoscope is used to listen to arterial blood flow sounds.
The heart’s beating pushes blood through the arteries causing a rise and fall of arterial pressure. The highest pressure is called systolic pressure and is followed by a decrease in pressure. This low blood pressure point is called the diastolic pressure.
When taking blood pressure, a stethoscope is positioned to listened to blood flow turbulence. The cuff is initially inflated well above expected systolic pressure. At this time, blood flow is stopped. No sounds are heard with the stethoscope. As the value is opened, pressure slowly diminishes. When the cuff’s pressure equals the arterial systolic pressure, blood begins to flow past the cuff. This creates blood flow turbulence and can be heard with the stethoscope. When this sounds are initially head, the doctor or nurse makes a note of the cuff’s air pressure value. As the cuff’s air is continued to be released, the blood turbulence sounds continue to be heard. When the cuff’s air pressure falls below the patient’s arterial diastolic pressure, the sounds stop. This pressure when the blood flow sounds stop indicates the diastolic pressure.
Types Blood Pressure Meter
1. Arm Monitors
These monitors automatically inflate the cuff and display readings. Most have “risk category indicators” that will flag high readings. Some models allow you to download results to a computer, making it easy to share them with your doctor.
Pros: Some models have multiple user memories, allowing more than one person in your household to monitor and record their blood pressure. Arm monitors tend to be more accurate in our tests.
Cons: Correct fit of the arm cuff is essential. If it’s too tight or loose, you may get inaccurate readings. Often, the units are bulky or not portable, and they’re often not as comfortable as wrist monitors.
2. Wrist Monitors
These convenient monitors are fully automatic but may be less accurate than arm models.
Pros: They’re compact, lightweight, and portable. They’re usually more comfortable than arm monitors.
Cons: Pressure measurements taken at the wrist are extremely sensitive to body position. Both wrist and arm cuffs should be positioned at heart level for an accurate reading; this is more difficult to get right with a wrist cuff.
Advantages of Blood Pressure Meter
- Can take multiple readings over the extended period of time.
- Avoids white coat reaction to BP Measurement
- Predicts CV Morbidity and mortality better than office BP
- Can Diagnosed White coat and masked hypertension
- Allows patient to understand better hypertension management
- Telle monitoring allows remote monitoring by health care professionals.
- Detects increased BP Variability
Some Precaution to Use Blood Pressure Meter
Take the blood pressure monitor you’ve purchased to your doctor’s office, so your care team can make sure you’re using it correctly and test whether its results are the same as the office monitor’s. The American Heart Association recommends doing this once a year to make sure your device is still working properly and getting accurate readings. And note that even the best home blood pressure monitor can still give inaccurate readings if it’s used improperly. The following tips from the AHA can help:
• Don’t smoke, drink any caffeine, or exercise for at least 30 minutes before you measure your blood pressure.
• Use the bathroom and then rest quietly for 5 minutes before taking a reading.
• Wrap the cuff around your bare arm, without any clothes in between the cuff and your skin.
• Sit on a sturdy chair with a supportive back (not a sofa), with your feet flat on the floor. Your arms should rest on a flat surface. The cuff of the device, whether it’s on your arm or wrist, should be at the same level as your heart.
• Take readings at the same time every day—such as morning and evening—for whatever time period your doctor advises. And each time you sit down to take your blood pressure, you should take two or three readings, 1 minute apart. Record your results and take them to your next appointment.
Buyers Guide to Buy Blood Pressure Meter
Check the Fit
Make sure the blood pressure monitor you choose has a cuff that fits the circumference of your upper arm or wrist. (Use a tape measure to be certain.) Using a cuff that’s the wrong size can result in inaccurate readings. Most of the arm models we tested have two cuffs or a cuff that can be adjusted to fit most people. Wrist models also fit most people.
The recommended models in the ratings (available to members) were priced from $40 to $100. But shop around. And find out whether your insurance covers blood pressure monitors.
Choose One That’s Easy to Use
The display on the monitor should be easy to read. The buttons should be large and intuitive. The directions for using the cuff and operating the monitor should be clear.
Select the Features You Need
There are many features to look for when selecting a blood pressure monitor. Here are some to consider: irregular-heartbeat detector, risk-category indicator, multiple user memories, multiple cuffs, memory download capability, large-digit display, and data averaging function. For more details, check out our ratings and click the Features and Specs tab.
Blood pressure monitoring is a useful device for clinical management of patients with hypertension. Its major advantages are the ease with which the techniques can be learned, reproducibility of values, sensitivity of measurement and availability of normotensive data. There a lot of device are available, This piece will help you out to choose the best one according to your budget and requirement.